罗马 關於与「罗马」名称相近或相同的条目,詳見「罗马」。

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12:19 AM
March
19 2013

罗马 關於与「罗马」名称相近或相同的条目,詳見「罗马」。

羅馬(意大利语:Roma)为意大利首都,也是意大利的政治、经济、文化和交通中心,為世界著名的歷史文化名城,古羅馬帝國的發祥地,因建城歷史悠久而被暱稱為「永恆之城」[1][2]。其位於意大利半島中西部,台伯河下游平原地的七座小山丘上,市中心面積有1200多平方公里。羅馬是全世界天主教會的中心,有700多座教堂與修道院,7所天主教大學,市內的梵蒂岡是天主教教宗和教廷的駐地。羅馬與佛羅倫斯同為義大利文藝復興中心[3],現今仍保存有相當豐富的文藝復興與巴洛克風貌;1980年,羅馬的歷史城區被列為世界文化遺產[4]。

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羅馬王政時期最後一任國王卢修斯·塔克文·苏佩布的兒子強姦了一位貴族婦女Lucretia,並造成此婦女自殺,其親戚布魯圖斯因此起兵推翻國王。前511年罗马人驱逐了前国王卢修斯·塔克文·苏佩布,结束了罗马王政时代,建立了罗马共和国,国家由元老院,执政官,和部族会议三权分立。掌握国家实权的元老院由贵族组成。执政官由百人队会议从贵族中选举产生,行使最高行政权力。部族大会由平民和贵族构成,议会领袖称首席元老,七年為一期,一人至終身為止最多做三期,由平民大会選出。

驱逐国王之後的最初十六年,罗马陷入了长期的所谓骚乱之中。前494年,当时罗马同邻近部落发生战争,而罗马平民拒绝作战,带武器离开罗马,史称“平民运动”,在这种情况下,贵族被迫承认了平民选举保民官和召开平民大会的权力,平民所选的保民官,负责保护平民的权力不受贵族侵犯。公元前471年,平民大会获得特里布斯会议称号,但其决议仅对平民有效。

前454年罗马成立一个由贵族和平民构成的十人立法委员会。前451年,十人立法委员会颁布了一部法典,并刻在12个铜表上,被称为十二铜表法。铜表法废除了平民与贵族不能通婚的限制,这也标志着罗马法的诞生。公元前367年李奇尼亞·塞克斯提亞法(lex Licinia Sextia)規定每年必須有一位執政官由平民擔任。前326年,取消了债务奴隶制。

扩张
罗马刚建国时,还是一个規模較小的国家。自公元前5世纪初开始,先后战胜拉丁同盟中的一些城市和伊特拉斯坎人等近邻,又征服了意大利半岛南部的土著和希腊人的城邦,成为地中海地区的大国。 前264年-前146年罗马和迦太基之间为争夺地中海沿岸的霸权发生了三次战争,被称为布匿战争。

前264年-前241年--第一次布匿战争,主要是在地中海上的海战。一开始在西西里岛交战,接着罗马进攻迦太基的本土,迦太基被罗马打败。
前218年-前201年--第二次布匿战争,三次战役中最著名的一场。迦太基主帅汉尼拔率領6万大军穿过阿尔卑斯山,入侵罗马;罗马先战败,但是百折不挠的罗马后来则出兵迦太基本土,汉尼拔被迫回军驰援,迦太基最终依然战败,丧失其全部海外领地,交出所有战舰,并向罗马赔款。此年的罗马统治下的人口达到770万人。

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